Integration of multiethnic fine-mapping and genomic annotation to prioritize candidate functional SNPs at prostate cancer susceptibility regions.
Han Y., Hazelett DJ., Wiklund F., Schumacher FR., Stram DO., Berndt SI., Wang Z., Rand KA., Hoover RN., Machiela MJ., Yeager M., Burdette L., Chung CC., Hutchinson A., Yu K., Xu J., Travis RC., Key TJ., Siddiq A., Canzian F., Takahashi A., Kubo M., Stanford JL., Kolb S., Gapstur SM., Diver WR., Stevens VL., Strom SS., Pettaway CA., Al Olama AA., Kote-Jarai Z., Eeles RA., Yeboah ED., Tettey Y., Biritwum RB., Adjei AA., Tay E., Truelove A., Niwa S., Chokkalingam AP., Isaacs WB., Chen C., Lindstrom S., Le Marchand L., Giovannucci EL., Pomerantz M., Long H., Li F., Ma J., Stampfer M., John EM., Ingles SA., Kittles RA., Murphy AB., Blot WJ., Signorello LB., Zheng W., Albanes D., Virtamo J., Weinstein S., Nemesure B., Carpten J., Leske MC., Wu S-Y., Hennis AJM., Rybicki BA., Neslund-Dudas C., Hsing AW., Chu L., Goodman PJ., Klein EA., Zheng SL., Witte JS., Casey G., Riboli E., Li Q., Freedman ML., Hunter DJ., Gronberg H., Cook MB., Nakagawa H., Kraft P., Chanock SJ., Easton DF., Henderson BE., Coetzee GA., Conti DV., Haiman CA.
Interpretation of biological mechanisms underlying genetic risk associations for prostate cancer is complicated by the relatively large number of risk variants (n = 100) and the thousands of surrogate SNPs in linkage disequilibrium. Here, we combined three distinct approaches: multiethnic fine-mapping, putative functional annotation (based upon epigenetic data and genome-encoded features), and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses, in an attempt to reduce this complexity. We examined 67 risk regions using genotyping and imputation-based fine-mapping in populations of European (cases/controls: 8600/6946), African (cases/controls: 5327/5136), Japanese (cases/controls: 2563/4391) and Latino (cases/controls: 1034/1046) ancestry. Markers at 55 regions passed a region-specific significance threshold (P-value cutoff range: 3.9 × 10(-4)-5.6 × 10(-3)) and in 30 regions we identified markers that were more significantly associated with risk than the previously reported variants in the multiethnic sample. Novel secondary signals (P < 5.0 × 10(-6)) were also detected in two regions (rs13062436/3q21 and rs17181170/3p12). Among 666 variants in the 55 regions with P-values within one order of magnitude of the most-associated marker, 193 variants (29%) in 48 regions overlapped with epigenetic or other putative functional marks. In 11 of the 55 regions, cis-eQTLs were detected with nearby genes. For 12 of the 55 regions (22%), the most significant region-specific, prostate-cancer associated variant represented the strongest candidate functional variant based on our annotations; the number of regions increased to 20 (36%) and 27 (49%) when examining the 2 and 3 most significantly associated variants in each region, respectively. These results have prioritized subsets of candidate variants for downstream functional evaluation.