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BACKGROUND: Helminths have profound effects on the immune response, allowing long-term survival of parasites with minimal damage to the host. Some of these effects "spill-over", altering responses to non-helminth antigens or allergens. It is suggested that this may lead to impaired responses to immunizations and infections, while conferring benefits against inflammatory responses in allergic and autoimmune disease. These effects might develop in utero, through exposure to maternal helminth infections, or through direct exposure in later life. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of helminths and their treatment in pregnancy and in young children on immunological and disease outcomes in childhood. METHODS: The trial has three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled interventions at two times, in two people: a pregnant woman and her child. Pregnant women are randomized to albendazole or placebo and praziquantel or placebo. At age 15 months their children are randomized to three-monthly albendazole or placebo, to continue to age five years. The proposed designation for this sequence of interventions is a 2 x 2(x2) factorial design. Children are immunized with BCG and against polio, Diphtheria, tetanus, Pertussis, Haemophilus, hepatitis B and measles. Primary immunological outcomes are responses to BCG antigens and tetanus toxoid in whole blood cytokine assays and antibody assays at one, three and five years of age. Primary disease outcomes are incidence of malaria, pneumonia, diarrhoea, tuberculosis, measles, vertical HIV transmission, and atopic disease episodes, measured at clinic visits and twice-monthly home visits. Effects on anaemia, growth and intellectual development are also assessed. CONCLUSION: This trial, with a novel design comprising related interventions in pregnant women and their offspring, is the first to examine effects of helminths and their treatment in pregnancy and early childhood on immunological, infectious disease and allergic disease outcomes. The results will enhance understanding of both detrimental and beneficial effects of helminth infection and inform policy.

Original publication

DOI

10.1177/1740774506075248

Type

Journal article

Journal

Clin Trials

Publication Date

2007

Volume

4

Pages

42 - 57

Keywords

Albendazole, Animals, Antiparasitic Agents, Child, Double-Blind Method, Female, Helminthiasis, Helminths, Humans, Immunization, Incidence, Male, Praziquantel, Pregnancy, Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic, Research Design, Uganda