Prevention of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis with low dose aspirin: Pulmonary Embolism Prevention (PEP) trial.
BACKGROUND: Previous trials of antiplatelet therapy for the prevention of venous thromboembolism have individually been inconclusive, but a meta-analysis of their results indicated reductions in the risks of deep-vein thrombosis and of pulmonary embolism in various high-risk groups. The aim of this large randomised placebo-controlled trial was to confirm or refute these apparent benefits. METHODS: During 1992-1998, 148 hospitals in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Sweden and the UK randomised 13,356 patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture, and 22 hospitals in New Zealand randomised a further 4088 patients undergoing elective arthroplasty. Study treatment was 160 mg daily aspirin or placebo, started preoperatively and continued for 35 days. Patients received any other thromboprophylaxis thought necessary. Follow-up was of mortality and of in-hospital morbidity up to day 35. FINDINGS: Among the patients with hip fracture, allocation to aspirin produced proportional reductions in pulmonary embolism of 43% (95% CI 18-60; p=0.002) and in symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis of 29% (3-48; p=0.03). Pulmonary embolism or deep-vein thrombosis was confirmed in 105 (1.6%) of 6679 patients assigned aspirin compared with 165 (2.5%) of 6677 assigned placebo, which represents an absolute reduction of 9 (SE 2) per 1000 and a proportional reduction of 36% (19-50; p=0.0003). Similar proportional effects were seen in all major subgroups, including patients receiving subcutaneous heparin. Aspirin prevented 4 (1) fatal pulmonary emboli per 1000 patients (18 aspirin-group vs 43 placebo-group deaths), representing a proportional reduction of 58% (27-76; p=0.002), with no apparent effect on deaths from any other vascular cause (hazard ratio 1.04 [95% CI 0.86-1.26]) or non-vascular cause (1.01 [0.84-1.23]). Deaths due to bleeding were few (13 aspirin vs 15 placebo), but there was an excess of 6 (3) postoperative transfused bleeding episodes per 1000 patients assigned aspirin (p=0.04). Among elective-arthroplasty patients, rates of venous thromboembolism were lower, but the proportional effects of aspirin were compatible with those among patients with hip fracture. INTERPRETATION: These results, along with those of the previous meta-analysis, show that aspirin reduces the risk of pulmonary embolism and deep-vein thrombosis by at least a third throughout a period of increased risk. Hence, there is now good evidence for considering aspirin routinely in a wide range of surgical and medical groups at high risk of venous thromboembolism.