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The responsiveness of the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) was compared with foot/ankle-specific and generic outcome measures used to assess all surgery of the foot and ankle. We recruited 671 consecutive adult patients awaiting foot or ankle surgery, of whom 427 (63.6%) were female, with a mean age of 52.8 years (18 to 89). They independently completed the MOXFQ, Short-Form 36 (SF-36) and EuroQol (EQ-5D) questionnaires pre-operatively and at a mean of nine months (3.8 to 14.4) post-operatively. Foot/ankle surgeons assessed American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores corresponding to four foot/ankle regions. A transition item measured perceived changes in foot/ankle problems post-surgery. Of 628 eligible patients proceeding to surgery, 491 (78%) completed questionnaires and 262 (42%) received clinical assessments both pre- and post-operatively. The regions receiving surgery were: multiple/whole foot in eight (1.3%), ankle/hindfoot in 292 (46.5%), mid-foot in 21 (3.3%), hallux in 196 (31.2%), and lesser toes in 111 (17.7%). Foot/ankle-specific MOXFQ, AOFAS and EQ-5D domains produced larger effect sizes (> 0.8) than any SF-36 domains, suggesting superior responsiveness. In analyses that anchored change in scores and effect sizes to patients' responses to a transition item about their foot/ankle problems, the MOXFQ performed well. The SF-36 and EQ-5D performed poorly. Similar analyses, conducted within foot-region based sub-groups of patients, found that the responsiveness of the MOXFQ was good compared with the AOFAS. This evidence supports the MOXFQ's suitability for assessing all foot and ankle surgery.

Original publication




Journal article


J Bone Joint Surg Br

Publication Date





215 - 221


Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Ankle, England, Female, Foot, Health Status Indicators, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Pain, Postoperative, Patient Satisfaction, Surveys and Questionnaires, Treatment Outcome, Young Adult