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OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of amniotic-fluid embolism and to describe risk factors, management, and outcomes. METHODS: Through a population-based cohort study and nested case-control analysis, using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System, we identified 60 women in the United Kingdom who had an amniotic-fluid embolism between February 2005 and February 2009 and 1,227 women for the control group. We investigated the potential factors underlying amniotic-fluid embolism using an exploratory logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Sixty cases of amniotic-fluid embolism were reported, an estimated incidence of 2.0 per 100,000 deliveries (95% CI 1.5-2.5). Amniotic-fluid embolism occurrence was significantly associated with induction of labor (adjusted OR 3.86, 95% CI 2.04-7.31) and multiple pregnancy (adjusted OR 10.9, 95% CI 2.81-42.7); an increased risk also was noted in older, ethnic-minority women (adjusted OR 9.85, 95% CI 3.57-27.2). Cesarean delivery was associated with postnatal amniotic-fluid embolism (adjusted OR 8.84, 95% CI 3.70-21.1). Twelve women died (case fatality 20%, 95% CI 11-32%); 5 of 37 newborns of women with antenatal amniotic-fluid embolism died (perinatal mortality 135 per 1,000 total births, 95% CI 45-288). Women who died were significantly more likely to be from ethnic-minority groups (adjusted OR 11.8, 95% CI 1.40-99.5). CONCLUSION: High-quality supportive care can result in good maternal outcomes after amniotic-fluid embolism. Clinicians should consider both the risks and benefits of induction and cesarean delivery because more restricted use may result in a decrease in the number of women suffering a potentially fatal amniotic-fluid embolism. The observed increased risk of fatality in ethnic-minority women may be associated with differences in underlying medical conditions or access to care, and clinicians should that ensure appropriate services are provided to minimize this risk.

Original publication

DOI

10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181d9f629

Type

Journal article

Journal

Obstet Gynecol

Publication Date

05/2010

Volume

115

Pages

910 - 917

Keywords

Adult, Cesarean Section, Embolism, Amniotic Fluid, Female, Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture, Humans, Incidence, Infant, Newborn, Logistic Models, Population Surveillance, Pregnancy, Pregnancy Outcome, Risk Factors, United Kingdom