Blood pressure loci identified with a gene-centric array.
Johnson T., Gaunt TR., Newhouse SJ., Padmanabhan S., Tomaszewski M., Kumari M., Morris RW., Tzoulaki I., O'Brien ET., Poulter NR., Sever P., Shields DC., Thom S., Wannamethee SG., Whincup PH., Brown MJ., Connell JM., Dobson RJ., Howard PJ., Mein CA., Onipinla A., Shaw-Hawkins S., Zhang Y., Davey Smith G., Day IN., Lawlor DA., Goodall AH., Cardiogenics Consortium None., Fowkes FG., Abecasis GR., Elliott P., Gateva V., Global BPgen Consortium None., Braund PS., Burton PR., Nelson CP., Tobin MD., van der Harst P., Glorioso N., Neuvrith H., Salvi E., Staessen JA., Stucchi A., Devos N., Jeunemaitre X., Plouin PF., Tichet J., Juhanson P., Org E., Putku M., Sõber S., Veldre G., Viigimaa M., Levinsson A., Rosengren A., Thelle DS., Hastie CE., Hedner T., Lee WK., Melander O., Wahlstrand B., Hardy R., Wong A., Cooper JA., Palmen J., Chen L., Stewart AF., Wells GA., Westra HJ., Wolfs MG., Clarke R., Franzosi MG., Goel A., Hamsten A., Lathrop M., Peden JF., Seedorf U., Watkins H., Ouwehand WH., Sambrook J., Stephens J., Casas JP., Drenos F., Holmes MV., Kivimaki M., Shah S., Shah T., Talmud PJ., Whittaker J., Wallace C., Delles C., Laan M., Kuh D., Humphries SE., Nyberg F., Cusi D., Roberts R., Newton-Cheh C., Franke L., Stanton AV., Dominiczak AF., Farrall M., Hingorani AD., Samani NJ., Caulfield MJ., Munroe PB.
Raised blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have identified 47 distinct genetic variants robustly associated with BP, but collectively these explain only a few percent of the heritability for BP phenotypes. To find additional BP loci, we used a bespoke gene-centric array to genotype an independent discovery sample of 25,118 individuals that combined hypertensive case-control and general population samples. We followed up four SNPs associated with BP at our p < 8.56 × 10(-7) study-specific significance threshold and six suggestively associated SNPs in a further 59,349 individuals. We identified and replicated a SNP at LSP1/TNNT3, a SNP at MTHFR-NPPB independent (r(2) = 0.33) of previous reports, and replicated SNPs at AGT and ATP2B1 reported previously. An analysis of combined discovery and follow-up data identified SNPs significantly associated with BP at p < 8.56 × 10(-7) at four further loci (NPR3, HFE, NOS3, and SOX6). The high number of discoveries made with modest genotyping effort can be attributed to using a large-scale yet targeted genotyping array and to the development of a weighting scheme that maximized power when meta-analyzing results from samples ascertained with extreme phenotypes, in combination with results from nonascertained or population samples. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcript expression data highlight potential gene regulatory mechanisms at the MTHFR and NOS3 loci. These results provide candidates for further study to help dissect mechanisms affecting BP and highlight the utility of studying SNPs and samples that are independent of those studied previously even when the sample size is smaller than that in previous studies.