Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

AIMS: Observational data suggest that the use of bilateral internal mammary arteries (BIMA) during coronary artery bypass graft surgery provides superior revascularization to a single internal mammary artery (SIMA), but concerns about safety have prevented the widespread use of BIMA. The Arterial Revascularisation Trial (ART) is a randomized trial of BIMA vs. SIMA, with a primary outcome of survival at 10 years. This paper reports mortality, morbidity, and resource use data at 1 year. METHODS AND RESULTS: Coronary artery bypass graft patients were enrolled in 28 hospitals in seven countries. Three thousand one hundred and two patients were randomly assigned to SIMA (n = 1554) or BIMA (n = 1548). The mean number of grafts was 3 for both groups. Forty per cent of the SIMA procedures and 42% of the BIMA were performed off-pump. Mortality at 30 days was 18 of 1548 (1.2%) for SIMA and 19 of 1537 (1.2%) for BIMA, and at 1 year was 36 of 1540 (2.3%) and 38 of 1529 (2.5%), respectively. The rates of stroke, myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization were all ≤2% at 1 year and similar between the two groups. Sternal wound reconstruction was required in 0.6 and 1.9% of the SIMA and BIMA groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: Data from ART demonstrate similar clinical outcomes for SIMA and BIMA at 1 year but BIMA grafts are associated with a small absolute increase (1.3%) in the need for sternal wound reconstruction. The results suggest that the use of BIMA grafts is feasible on a routine basis. The 10-year results of the ART will confirm whether BIMA grafting results in lower mortality and the need for repeat intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: (ISRCTN46552265).

Original publication




Journal article


Eur Heart J

Publication Date





2470 - 2481


Female, Humans, Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis, Kaplan-Meier Estimate, Male, Middle Aged, Myocardial Ischemia, Treatment Outcome