Perinatal outcomes associated with combination antiretroviral therapy compared with monotherapy.
Portwood C., Sexton H., Kumarendran M., Brandon Z., Johnson B., Kirtley S., Hemelaar J.
OBJECTIVES: Increasing numbers of women living with HIV (WLHIV) worldwide receive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) during pregnancy. We aimed to assess the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnant WLHIV receiving cART compared with pregnant WLHIV receiving zidovudine monotherapy. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched four electronic literature databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Global Health, EMBASE) for studies published between 1 January 1980 and 20 April 2020 using a comprehensive search strategy. Studies reporting data on WLHIV receiving cART compared with WLHIV receiving monotherapy for 11 adverse perinatal outcomes were sought: preterm birth (PTB), very PTB, spontaneous PTB, low birthweight (LBW), very LBW, preterm and term LBW, small for gestational age (SGA), very SGA (VSGA), stillbirth, and neonatal death. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to calculate relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: We included 30 studies reporting on 317 101 pregnant women in 27 countries. WLHIV receiving cART were at increased risk of PTB (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18-1.46), LBW (1.35, 1.19-1.53), SGA (1.32, 1.13-1.53), VSGA (1.64, 1.34-2.02), and stillbirth (2.41, 1.83-3.17) compared to WLHIV receiving monotherapy. The significance of these results was maintained in subgroup analyses for studies conducted in low and middle-income countries and average quality studies. Additionally, WLHIV receiving nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based cART were associated with increased risk of PTB, LBW, and stillbirth, while WLHIV receiving protease inhibitor-based cART were associated with increased risk of PTB, compared with WLHIV receiving monotherapy. CONCLUSION: Pregnant WLHIV receiving cART are associated with increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, compared with WLHIV receiving monotherapy.