Adverse maternal, fetal, and newborn outcomes among pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection: an individual participant data meta-analysis.
Smith ER., Oakley E., Grandner GW., Ferguson K., Farooq F., Afshar Y., Ahlberg M., Ahmadzia H., Akelo V., Aldrovandi G., Tippett Barr BA., Bevilacqua E., Brandt JS., Broutet N., Fernández Buhigas I., Carrillo J., Clifton R., Conry J., Cosmi E., Crispi F., Crovetto F., Delgado-López C., Divakar H., Driscoll AJ., Favre G., Flaherman VJ., Gale C., Gil MM., Gottlieb SL., Gratacós E., Hernandez O., Jones S., Kalafat E., Khagayi S., Knight M., Kotloff K., Lanzone A., Le Doare K., Lees C., Litman E., Lokken EM., Laurita Longo V., Madhi SA., Magee LA., Martinez-Portilla RJ., McClure EM., Metz TD., Miller ES., Money D., Moungmaithong S., Mullins E., Nachega JB., Nunes MC., Onyango D., Panchaud A., Poon LC., Raiten D., Regan L., Rukundo G., Sahota D., Sakowicz A., Sanin-Blair J., Söderling J., Stephansson O., Temmerman M., Thorson A., Tolosa JE., Townson J., Valencia-Prado M., Visentin S., von Dadelszen P., Adams Waldorf K., Whitehead C., Yassa M., Tielsch JM., Perinatal COVID PMA Study Collaborators None., and Perinatal COVID PMA Study Collaborators None.
INTRODUCTION: Despite a growing body of research on the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, there is continued controversy given heterogeneity in the quality and design of published studies. METHODS: We screened ongoing studies in our sequential, prospective meta-analysis. We pooled individual participant data to estimate the absolute and relative risk (RR) of adverse outcomes among pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared with confirmed negative pregnancies. We evaluated the risk of bias using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: We screened 137 studies and included 12 studies in 12 countries involving 13 136 pregnant women.Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection-as compared with uninfected pregnant women-were at significantly increased risk of maternal mortality (10 studies; n=1490; RR 7.68, 95% CI 1.70 to 34.61); admission to intensive care unit (8 studies; n=6660; RR 3.81, 95% CI 2.03 to 7.17); receiving mechanical ventilation (7 studies; n=4887; RR 15.23, 95% CI 4.32 to 53.71); receiving any critical care (7 studies; n=4735; RR 5.48, 95% CI 2.57 to 11.72); and being diagnosed with pneumonia (6 studies; n=4573; RR 23.46, 95% CI 3.03 to 181.39) and thromboembolic disease (8 studies; n=5146; RR 5.50, 95% CI 1.12 to 27.12).Neonates born to women with SARS-CoV-2 infection were more likely to be admitted to a neonatal care unit after birth (7 studies; n=7637; RR 1.86, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.08); be born preterm (7 studies; n=6233; RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.29) or moderately preterm (7 studies; n=6071; RR 2.92, 95% CI 1.88 to 4.54); and to be born low birth weight (12 studies; n=11 930; RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.40). Infection was not linked to stillbirth. Studies were generally at low or moderate risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis indicates that SARS-CoV-2 infection at any time during pregnancy increases the risk of maternal death, severe maternal morbidities and neonatal morbidity, but not stillbirth or intrauterine growth restriction. As more data become available, we will update these findings per the published protocol.