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ObjectiveTo describe translation methods, to outline current recommendations for translation and to give an overview of translation procedures used in headache.BackgroundIn health-care research, particularly in the domain of health-related quality of life, an increasing number of questionnaires are translated for cross- cultural comparison. A number of headache-related questionnaires have also been translated. To ensure true cross-cultural comparison, it is important to use rigorous translation methods to ensure a high quality translated version of the instruments.MethodsLiterature relevant to cross-cultural translations was reviewed, as well as literature concerning translation of headache-related instruments.ConclusionMore information on the translation process for headache-related instruments is essential to carry out high quality cross-cultural research. Recommendation are given to encourage good translation practices.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





82 - 91


Department of Medical Psychology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.


Headache, Language, Cross-Cultural Comparison, Quality of Life, Surveys and Questionnaires