Diet and BMI Correlate with Metabolite Patterns Associated with Aggressive Prostate Cancer
Grenville ZS., Noor U., His M., Viallon V., Rinaldi S., Aglago EK., Amiano P., Brunkwall L., Chirlaque MD., Drake I., Eichelmann F., Freisling H., Grioni S., Heath AK., Kaaks R., Katzke V., Mayén-Chacon AL., Milani L., Moreno-Iribas C., Pala V., Olsen A., Sánchez MJ., Schulze MB., Tjønneland A., Tsilidis KK., Weiderpass E., Winkvist A., Zamora-Ros R., Key TJ., Smith-Byrne K., Travis RC., Schmidt JA.
Three metabolite patterns have previously shown prospective inverse associations with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Here, we investigated dietary and lifestyle correlates of these three prostate cancer-related metabolite patterns, which included: 64 phosphatidylcholines and three hydroxysphingomyelins (Pattern 1), acylcarnitines C18:1 and C18:2, glutamate, ornithine, and taurine (Pattern 2), and 8 lysophosphatidylcholines (Pattern 3). In a two-stage cross-sectional discovery (n = 2524) and validation (n = 518) design containing 3042 men free of cancer in EPIC, we estimated the associations of 24 dietary and lifestyle variables with each pattern and the contributing individual metabolites. Associations statistically significant after both correction for multiple testing (False Discovery Rate = 0.05) in the discovery set and at p < 0.05 in the validation set were considered robust. Intakes of alcohol, total fish products, and its subsets total fish and lean fish were positively associated with Pattern 1. Body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with Pattern 2, which appeared to be driven by a strong positive BMI-glutamate association. Finally, both BMI and fatty fish were inversely associated with Pattern 3. In conclusion, these results indicate associations of fish and its subtypes, alcohol, and BMI with metabolite patterns that are inversely associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer.