Vitamin D and cognition in older adults: international consensus guidelines.
Annweiler C., Dursun E., Féron F., Gezen-Ak D., Kalueff AV., Littlejohns T., Llewellyn D., Millet P., Scott T., Tucker KL., Yilmazer S., Beauchet O.
Hypovitaminosis D, a common condition in older adults, is associated with brain changes and dementia. Given the fast growing contribution of literature in this research field, clear guidance is needed for clinicians and researchers. International experts met at the invitational summit on "Vitamin D and cognition in older adults" in Boston, MA, July 2013. Based upon literature and expert opinion, the task force focused on key questions on the role of vitamin D in Alzheimer disease and related disorders. Each question was discussed and voted using a Delphi-like approach. Experts reached agreement that hypovitaminosis D increases the risk of cognitive decline and dementia in older adults, may alter the clinical presentation as a consequence of related comorbidities, but should not be used thus far as a diagnostic or prognostic biomarker of Alzheimer disease due to lack of specificity and insufficient evidence. Hypovitaminosis D should be screened in this population because of its high prevalence and supplemented, if necessary, but this advice was not specific to cognition. The task force agreed on 5 overarching principles related to vitamin D and cognition in older adults.