Comparison of dietary assessment methods in nutritional epidemiology: weighed records v. 24 h recalls, food-frequency questionnaires and estimated-diet records.
Bingham SA., Gill C., Welch A., Day K., Cassidy A., Khaw KT., Sneyd MJ., Key TJ., Roe L., Day NE.
Women (n 160) aged 50 to 65 years were asked to weigh their food for 4 d on four occasions over the period of 1 year, using the PETRA (Portable Electronic Tape Recorded Automatic) scales. Throughout the year, they were asked to complete seven other dietary assessment methods: a simple 24 h recall, a structured 24 h recall with portion size assessments using photographs, two food-frequency questionnaires, a 7 d estimated record or open-ended food diary, a structured food-frequency (menu) record, and a structured food-frequency (menu) record with portion sizes assessed using photographs. Comparisons between the average of the 16 d weighed records and the first presentation of each method indicated that food-frequency questionnaires were not appreciably better at placing individuals in the distribution of habitual diet than 24 h recalls, due partly to inaccuracies in the estimation of frequency of food consumption. With a 7 d estimated record or open-ended food diary, however, individual values of nutrients were most closely associated with those obtained from 16 d weighed records, and there were no significant differences in average food or nutrient intakes.