Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors, All-Cause Mortality, and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Bayesian Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression.
Odutayo A., da Costa BR., Pereira TV., Garg V., Iskander S., Roble F., Lalji R., Hincapié CA., Akingbade A., Rodrigues M., Agarwal A., Lawendy B., Saadat P., Udell JA., Cosentino F., Grant PJ., Verma S., Jüni P.
Background This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in reducing the incidence of mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods and Results We conducted a Bayesian meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors with placebo. We used meta-regression to examine the association between treatment effects and control group event rates as measures of cardiovascular baseline risk. Fifty-three randomized controlled trials were included in our synthesis. Empagliflozin, canagliflozin, and dapagliflozin reduced the incidence of all-cause mortality (empagliflozin: rate ratio [RR], 0.79; 95% credibility interval [CrI], 0.63-0.97; canagliflozin: RR, 0.86; 95% CrI, 0.69-1.05; dapagliflozin: RR, 0.86; 95% CrI, 0.72-1.01) and cardiovascular mortality (empagliflozin: RR, 0.78; 95% CrI, 0.61-1.00; canagliflozin: RR, 0.83; 95% CrI, 0.63-1.05; dapagliflozin: RR, 0.88; 95% CrI, 0.71-1.08), with a 90.1% to 98.7% probability for the true RR to be <1.00 for both outcomes. There was little evidence for ertugliflozin and sotagliflozin versus placebo for reducing all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. There was no association between treatment effects for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and the control group event rates. There was evidence for a reduction in the incidence of heart failure for empagliflozin, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and ertugliflozin versus placebo (probability RR <1.00 of ≥99.3%) and weaker, albeit positive, evidence for acute myocardial infarction for the first 3 agents (probability RR <1.00 of 89.0%-95.2%). There was little evidence of any agent except canagliflozin for reducing the incidence of stroke. Conclusions Empagliflozin, canagliflozin, and dapagliflozin reduced the incidence of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality versus placebo. Treatment effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors versus placebo do not vary by baseline risk.