Texas Has the Highest Hepatocellular Carcinoma Incidence Rates in the USA
El-Serag HB., Sardell R., Thrift AP., Kanwal F., Miller P.
BACKGROUND: Texas is the second largest state by area and population in the USA and is reported to have high incidence and mortality rates for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The reasons for the increasingly high burden of HCC in Texas are not clear. AIMS: We explored trends and demographic and regional variations in HCC incidence to better understand reasons for the high burden in Texas. METHODS: We analyzed Texas Cancer Registry incidence data from 2001 to 2015 and compared results to the U.S. National Program of Cancer Registries and SEER for the same period. Rates were stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, and age at diagnosis. Rates were also compared between the US/Mexico border region of Texas and the rest of Texas. RESULTS: Texas had the highest HCC age-adjusted incidence rate of all states, 13.2/100,000, which was 45% higher than the national average. In Texas and nationally, rates increased by 4% per year between 2001 and 2015. Rates in Texas were 26-37% greater than national rates for Hispanics, African-Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. Among Hispanics in states with the largest percentage of Hispanics, Texas-based Hispanics had the highest HCC incidence rate in 2015 (21.2/100,000) compared with Hispanics in New Mexico, California, Arizona, Nevada, and Florida. Incidence rates were highest in South Texas and US/Mexico border regions. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing rates in the large Hispanic population may explain why Texas now has the highest HCC incidence rate in the USA.