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© 2012 by Oxford University Press, Inc. All rights reserved. This chapter provides an overview of risk and protective factors that may account for posttraumatic responses. In addition to risk and protective factors specifically for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the outcomes of resilience and posttraumatic growth are considered. Emphasis is placed on the importance of a longitudinal and especially a lifespan developmental framework to understand both the short- and long-term implications of trauma exposure and the factors that influence its consequences. A brief introduction to methodological approaches for documenting longitudinal change is presented, followed by suggestions for future research.

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Book title

The Oxford Handbook of Traumatic Stress Disorders

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