Coffee Drinking and Mortality in 10 European Countries: A Multinational Cohort Study.
Gunter MJ., Murphy N., Cross AJ., Dossus L., Dartois L., Fagherazzi G., Kaaks R., Kühn T., Boeing H., Aleksandrova K., Tjønneland A., Olsen A., Overvad K., Larsen SC., Redondo Cornejo ML., Agudo A., Sánchez Pérez MJ., Altzibar JM., Navarro C., Ardanaz E., Khaw KT., Butterworth A., Bradbury KE., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Trichopoulos D., Palli D., Grioni S., Vineis P., Panico S., Tumino R., Bueno-de-Mesquita B., Siersema P., Leenders M., Beulens JWJ., Uiterwaal CU., Wallström P., Nilsson LM., Landberg R., Weiderpass E., Skeie G., Braaten T., Brennan P., Licaj I., Muller DC., Sinha R., Wareham N., Riboli E.
Background: The relationship between coffee consumption and mortality in diverse European populations with variable coffee preparation methods is unclear. Objective: To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: 10 European countries. Participants: 521 330 persons enrolled in EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Measurements: Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The association of coffee consumption with serum biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and metabolic health was evaluated in the EPIC Biomarkers subcohort (n = 14 800). Results: During a mean follow-up of 16.4 years, 41 693 deaths occurred. Compared with nonconsumers, participants in the highest quartile of coffee consumption had statistically significantly lower all-cause mortality (men: HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.82 to 0.95]; P for trend < 0.001; women: HR, 0.93 [CI, 0.87 to 0.98]; P for trend = 0.009). Inverse associations were also observed for digestive disease mortality for men (HR, 0.41 [CI, 0.32 to 0.54]; P for trend < 0.001) and women (HR, 0.60 [CI, 0.46 to 0.78]; P for trend < 0.001). Among women, there was a statistically significant inverse association of coffee drinking with circulatory disease mortality (HR, 0.78 [CI, 0.68 to 0.90]; P for trend < 0.001) and cerebrovascular disease mortality (HR, 0.70 [CI, 0.55 to 0.90]; P for trend = 0.002) and a positive association with ovarian cancer mortality (HR, 1.31 [CI, 1.07 to 1.61]; P for trend = 0.015). In the EPIC Biomarkers subcohort, higher coffee consumption was associated with lower serum alkaline phosphatase; alanine aminotransferase; aspartate aminotransferase; γ-glutamyltransferase; and, in women, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein(a), and glycated hemoglobin levels. Limitations: Reverse causality may have biased the findings; however, results did not differ after exclusion of participants who died within 8 years of baseline. Coffee-drinking habits were assessed only once. Conclusion: Coffee drinking was associated with reduced risk for death from various causes. This relationship did not vary by country. Primary Funding Source: European Commission Directorate-General for Health and Consumers and International Agency for Research on Cancer.