Consumption of fruits, vegetables and fruit juices and differentiated thyroid carcinoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.
Zamora-Ros R., Béraud V., Franceschi S., Cayssials V., Tsilidis KK., Boutron-Ruault MC., Weiderpass E., Overvad K., Tjønneland A., Eriksen AK., Bonnet F., Affret A., Katzke V., Kühn T., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Valanou E., Karakatsani A., Masala G., Grioni S., Santucci de Magistris M., Tumino R., Ricceri F., Skeie G., Parr CL., Merino S., Salamanca-Fernández E., Chirlaque MD., Ardanaz E., Amiano P., Almquist M., Drake I., Hennings J., Sandström M., Bueno-de-Mesquita HB., Peeters PH., Khaw KT., Wareham NJ., Schmidt JA., Perez-Cornago A., Aune D., Riboli E., Slimani N., Scalbert A., Romieu I., Agudo A., Rinaldi S.
Fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is considered as probably protective against overall cancer risk, but results in previous studies are not consistent for thyroid cancer (TC). The purpose of this study is to examine the association between the consumption of fruits, vegetables, fruit juices and differentiated thyroid cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The EPIC study is a cohort including over half a million participants, recruited between 1991 and 2000. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 748 incident first primary differentiated TC cases were identified. F&V and fruit juice intakes were assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Comparing the highest versus lowest quartile of intake, differentiated TC risk was not associated with intakes of total F&V (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.68-1.15; p-trend = 0.44), vegetables (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.69-1.14; p-trend = 0.56), or fruit (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.79-1.26; p-trend = 0.64). No significant association was observed with any individual type of vegetable or fruit. However, there was a positive borderline trend with fruit juice intake (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.98-1.53; p-trend = 0.06). This study did not find any significant association between F&V intakes and differentiated TC risk; however a positive trend with fruit juice intake was observed, possibly related to its high sugar content.