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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gastro-intestinal toxicity is dose-limiting in abdominal radiotherapy and correlated with duodenum dose-volume parameters. We aimed to derive updated NTCP model parameters using published data and prospective radiotherapy quality-assured cohort data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search identified publications providing duodenum dose-volume histogram (DVH) statistics for clinical studies of conventionally-fractionated radiotherapy. Values for the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) NTCP model were derived through sum-squared-error minimisation and using leave-one-out cross-validation. Data were corrected for fraction size and weighted according to patient numbers, and the model refined using individual patient DVH data for two further cohorts from prospective clinical trials. RESULTS: Six studies with published DVH data were utilised, and with individual patient data included outcomes for 531 patients in total (median follow-up 16months). Observed gastro-intestinal toxicity rates ranged from 0% to 14% (median 8%). LKB parameter values for unconstrained fit to published data were: n=0.070, m=0.46, TD50(1) [Gy]=183.8, while the values for the model incorporating the individual patient data were n=0.193, m=0.51, TD50(1) [Gy]=299.1. CONCLUSIONS: LKB parameters derived using published data are shown to be consistent to those previously obtained using individual patient data, supporting a small volume-effect and dependence on exposure to high threshold dose.

Original publication




Journal article


Radiother Oncol

Publication Date





431 - 437


Duodenum, Meta-analysis, NTCP, Normal tissue, Pancreatic cancer, Toxicity, Cohort Studies, Duodenum, Humans, Pancreatic Neoplasms, Prospective Studies, Radiation Injuries, Radiotherapy Dosage