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BACKGROUND: Worldwide 350 million people suffer from major depression, with the majority of cases occurring in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the patterns, correlates and care-seeking behaviour of adults suffering from major depressive episode (MDE) in China. METHOD: A nationwide study recruited 512 891 adults aged 30-79 years from 10 provinces across China during 2004-2008. The 12-month prevalence of MDE was assessed by the Modified Composite International Diagnostic Interview-short form. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of MDE associated with socio-economic, lifestyle and health-related factors and major stressful life events. RESULTS: Overall, 0.7% of participants had MDE and a further 2.4% had major depressive symptoms. Stressful life events were strongly associated with MDE [adjusted OR 14.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 13.7-15.7], with a dose-response relationship with the number of such events experienced. Family conflict had the highest OR for MDE (18.9, 95% CI 16.8-21.2) among the 10 stressful life events. The risk of MDE was also positively associated with rural residency (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4-1.7), low income (OR 2.3, 95% CI 2.1-2.4), living alone (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.3-3.0), smoking (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6) and certain other mental disorders (e.g. anxiety, phobia). Similar, albeit weaker, associations were observed with depressive symptoms. Among those with MDE, about 15% sought medical help or took psychiatric medication, 15% reported having suicidal ideation and 6% reported attempting suicide. CONCLUSIONS: Among Chinese adults, the patterns and correlates of MDE were generally consistent with those observed in the West. The low rates of seeking professional help and treatment highlight the great gap in mental health services in China.

Original publication




Journal article


Psychol Med

Publication Date





958 - 970


China rural regions, family conflict, living alone, major depressive disorder, stressful life events, Adult, Aged, China, Cross-Sectional Studies, Depressive Disorder, Major, Family Conflict, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Patient Acceptance of Health Care, Socioeconomic Factors, Stress, Psychological