Prognostic factors and outcome for children after second central nervous system relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Morris EC., Harrison G., Bailey CC., Hann IM., Hill FG., Gibson BE., Richards S., Webb DK., Medical Research Council Childhood Leukaemia Working Party None.
The Medical Research Council acute lymphoblastic leukaemia trials (UKALL X and XI) recruited 3,702 children with ALL between January 1985 and March 1997. Seventy-nine children had central nervous system (CNS) involvement in their first two relapses. Fourteen children survived at a median follow-up of 22 months from second relapse; seven (9%) in third remission, two in later remissions and five with disease. Factors predictive of survival from second relapse were site (isolated CNS was better than combined CNS, P = 0.02) and time from diagnosis to second CNS relapse (longer time was better, P = 0.004). Prognosis after second CNS relapse is extremely poor, and palliative therapy is appropriate.