Testicular hypofunction and multiple sclerosis risk: a record-linkage study.
Pakpoor J., Goldacre R., Schmierer K., Giovannoni G., Goldacre MJ.
The influence of gonadal hormones on multiple sclerosis (MS) is not well characterized and has thus far been investigated primarily in animal models or as a proposed therapeutic approach. We investigated a potential association between testicular hypofunction, as a proxy for low testosterone levels, and MS risk through analysis of linked English national Hospital Episode Statistics from 1999 to 2011. We report a strong positive association between testicular hypofunction and subsequent MS (rate ratio = 4.62, 95% confidence interval = 2.3-8.24, p < 0.0001). Future work should aim more directly to elucidate the relationship between testosterone levels and MS in both males and females.