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The global distribution of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants is extremely complex and dynamic. The increasing diversity has profound implications for many aspects of the pandemic, including viral pathogenicity, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and vaccine development. HIV-1 genetic diversity surveillance is crucial in tackling the pandemic, but systematic surveillance at national, regional, and global levels has, to date, been lacking. Here, we discuss methods for gathering representative HIV-1 molecular epidemiology data and incorporating these into a comprehensive global HIV-1 diversity monitoring system.

Original publication




Journal article


Trends Mol Med

Publication Date





691 - 694


Databases, Genetic, Epidemiological Monitoring, Genetic Variation, Global Health, HIV-1, Molecular Epidemiology