Contribution of known and unknown susceptibility genes to early-onset diabetes in scandinavia: evidence for heterogeneity.
Lindgren CM., Widén E., Tuomi T., Li H., Almgren P., Kanninen T., Melander O., Weng J., Lehto M., Groop LC.
In an attempt to identify novel susceptibility genes predisposing to early-onset diabetes (EOD), we performed a genome-wide scan using 433 markers in 222 individuals (119 with diabetes) from 29 Scandinavian families with > or =2 members with onset of diabetes < or =45 years. The highest nonparametric linkage (NPL) score, 2.7 (P < 0.01), was observed on chromosome 1p (D1S473/D1S438). Six other regions on chromosomes 3p, 7q, 11q, 18q, 20q, and 21q showed a nominal P value <0.05. Of the EOD subjects in these 29 families, 20% were GAD antibody positive and 68% displayed type 1 diabetes HLA risk alleles (DQB*02 or 0302). Mutations in maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) 1-5 genes and the A3243G mitochondrial DNA mutation were detected by single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing. To increase homogeneity, we analyzed a subsample of five families with autosomal dominant inheritance of EOD (greater than or equal to two members with age at diagnosis < or =35 years). The highest NPL scores were found on chromosome 1p (D1S438-D1S1665; NPL 3.0; P < 0.01) and 16q (D16S419; NPL 2.9; P < 0.01). After exclusion of three families with MODY1, MODY3, and mitochondrial mutations, the highest NPL scores were observed on chromosomes 1p (D1S438; NPL 2.6; P < 0.01), 3p (D3S1620; NPL 2.2; P < 0.03), 5q (D5S1465; NPL 2.1; P < 0.03), 7q (D7S820; NPL 2.0; P < 0.03), 18q (D18S535; NPL 1.9; P < 0.04), 20q (D20S195; NPL 2.5; P < 0.02), and 21q (D21S1446; NPL 2.2; P < 0.03). We conclude that considerable heterogeneity exists in Scandinavian subjects with EOD; 24% had MODY or maternally inherited diabetes and deafness, and approximately 60% were GAD antibody positive or had type 1 diabetes-associated HLA genotypes. Our data also point at putative chromosomal regions, which could harbor novel genes that contribute to EOD.