Imported malaria and high risk groups: observational study using UK surveillance data 1987-2006.
Smith AD., Bradley DJ., Smith V., Blaze M., Behrens RH., Chiodini PL., Whitty CJM.
OBJECTIVE: To examine temporal, geographic, and sociodemographic trends in case reporting and case fatality of malaria in the United Kingdom. SETTING: National malaria reference laboratory surveillance data in the UK. DESIGN: Observational study using prospectively gathered surveillance data and data on destinations from the international passenger survey. PARTICIPANTS: 39,300 cases of proved malaria in the UK between 1987 and 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Plasmodium species; sociodemographic details (including age, sex, and country of birth and residence); mortality; destination, duration, and purpose of international travel; and use of chemoprophylaxis. RESULTS: Reported cases of imported malaria increased significantly over the 20 years of the study; an increasing proportion was attributable to Plasmodium falciparum (P falciparum/P vivax reporting ratio 1.3:1 in 1987-91 and 5.4:1 in 2002-6). P vivax reports declined from 3954 in 1987-91 to 1244 in 2002-6. Case fatality of reported P falciparum malaria did not change over this period (7.4 deaths per 1000 reported cases). Travellers visiting friends and relatives, usually in a country in Africa or Asia from which members of their family migrated, accounted for 13 215/20 488 (64.5%) of all malaria reported, and reports were geographically concentrated in areas where migrants from Africa and South Asia to the UK have settled. People travelling for this purpose were at significantly higher risk of malaria than other travellers and were less likely to report the use of any chemoprophylaxis (odds ratio of reported chemoprophylaxis use 0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.21 to 0.25). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the availability of highly effective preventive measures, the preventable burden from falciparum malaria has steadily increased in the UK while vivax malaria has decreased. Provision of targeted and appropriately delivered preventive messages and services for travellers from migrant families visiting friends and relatives should be a priority.