This study investigated antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotypes and genotypes exhibited by Neisseria gonorrhoeae from Yaoundé, Cameroon. AMR to tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin was observed although none of the isolates had reduced susceptibility to azithromycin, cefixime or ceftriaxone. Whole genome sequence (WGS) data were obtained and, using a threshold of 300 or fewer locus differences in the N. gonorrhoeae core gene multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) scheme, four distinct core genome lineages were identified. Publicly available WGS data from 1355 gonococci belonging to these four lineages were retrieved from the PubMLST database, allowing the Cameroonian isolates to be examined in the context of existing data and compared with related gonococci. Examination of AMR genotypes in this dataset found an association between the core genome and AMR with, for example, isolates belonging to the core genome group, Ng_cgc_300 : 21, possessing GyrA and ParC alleles with amino acid substitutions conferring high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin while lineages Ng_cgc_300 : 41 and Ng_cgc_300 : 243 were predicted to be susceptible to several antimicrobials. A core genome lineage, Ng_cgc_300 : 498, was observed which largely consisted of gonococci originating from Africa. Analyses from this study demonstrate the advantages of using the N. gonorrhoeae cgMLST scheme to find related gonococci to carry out genomic analyses that enhance our understanding of the population biology of this important pathogen.
Africa, Cameroon, antimicrobial resistance, cgMLST, genomics, gonorrhoea, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Cameroon, Genotype, Phenotype, Neisseria, Ciprofloxacin