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AIM: Hypertension is the leading cause of heart failure (HF) in sub-Saharan Africa. Preventive public health approach to reduce the scourge of HF must seek to understand the risk factors of HF in at-risk populations. The aim of this study was to characterize the risk factors of HF among patients with hypertension attending a cardiology clinic. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and one (101) case-control age- and sex-matched pairs were recruited. The study population were adults with a clinical diagnosis of hypertensive HF (cases) and individuals with systemic hypertension without HF. They were interviewed and evaluated for cardiovascular risk factors. Associations between variables were tested with chi square test, Fisher's exact test and independent sample t test as appropriate. Logistic regression modelling was used to determine the independent risk factors of hypertensive HF (HHF) in the study population while 'punafcc' package in stata12 was used to calculate the population attributable fraction (PAF) of the risk factors. Suboptimal medication adherence was the strongest adverse risk factor of HHF (medium adherence aOR: 3.53, 95%CI: 1.35-9.25; low adherence aOR: 9.44, 95%CI: 3.41-26.10) with a PAF of 67% followed by dipstick proteinuria (aOR: 4.22, 95%CI: 1.62-11.02; PAF: 34%) and alcohol consumption/day per 10grams (aOR: 1.23, 95%CI: 1.02-1.49; PAF: 22%). The protective risk factors of HHF were use of calcium channel blockers (aOR 0.25, 95%CI: 0.11-0.59; PAF: 59%), then daily fruits and vegetable consumption (aOR 0.41, 95%CI: 0.17-1.01; PAF: 46%), and eGFR (aOR 0.98, 95%CI: 0.96-0.99; PAF: 5.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors of HHF are amenable to lifestyle and dietary changes. Public health interventions and preventive cardiovascular care to improve medication adherence, promote fruit and vegetable consumption and reduce alcohol consumption among patients with hypertension are recommended. Renoprotection has utility in the prevention of HF among hypertensives.

Original publication




Journal article


PLoS One

Publication Date





Case-Control Studies, Female, Heart Failure, Humans, Hypertension, Male, Middle Aged, Nigeria, Risk Factors, Tertiary Care Centers