Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Vitamins are classified as: fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, or K), and water-soluble vitamins (vitamin B or C). This chapter reviews the essential biochemistry, observational studies, and randomised trials of: homocysteine, B vitamins, and cardiovascular disease (CVD); vitamin D and CVD; vitamin E, C, and beta-carotene, and CVD. B vitamins play an essential role in one carbon metabolism in all cells, involving homocysteine and related compounds. Two meta-analyses of observational studies, one which included individual person data, suggested that taking vitamin D was associated with lower risks of overall mortality. Vitamin E comprises a number of fat-soluble tocopherols and tocotrienols, including alphatocopherol being the most widely studied. Multiple large-scale observational studies have reported inverse associations of vitamin C status with risk of CVD. Observational studies indicate that high intake of beta-carotene is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

Original publication





Book title

Cardiovascular Disease: Diet, Nutrition and Emerging Risk Factors, Second Edition

Publication Date



245 - 270