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We aimed to quantify the association of blood interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations with poor outcome after stroke and its added predictive value over clinical information. Meta-analysis of 24 studies confirmed this association with a weighted mean difference of 3.443 (1.592-5.294) pg/mL, despite high heterogeneity and publication bias. Individual participant data including 4112 stroke patients showed standardized IL-6 levels in the 4th quartile were independently associated with poor outcome (OR=2.346 (1.814-3.033), p<0.0001). However, the additional predictive value of IL-6 was moderate (IDI=1.5%, NRI=5.35%). Overall these results indicate an unlikely translation of IL-6 into clinical practice for this purpose.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of neuroimmunology

Publication Date





215 - 224


Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Research, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain; Neurology Department, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.


Humans, Interleukin-6, Prognosis, Predictive Value of Tests, Recovery of Function, Stroke, Biomarkers