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Objective: To describe and analyze the epidemiological characteristics of premature death (death before age of 70 years) and related risk factors in approximate 100 000 adults recruited from 10 regions of China during a 10-year follow-up. Methods: Data, including demographic characteristics, lifestyle and physical indicators as well as health outcomes as of December 31, 2017, were obtained from baseline survey and long-term follow-up of the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study. All-cause and cause-specific premature death in different areas, in men and women and in people with different lifestyles were analyzed. Cox proportional risk model was used to analyze the associations between baseline factors and premature death. Results: A total of 99 993 participants aged 56-69 years were included in the study. During 10 years of follow-up, 7 530 premature deaths were recorded and the premature death rate was 7.15 per 1 000 person-years. The main causes of premature death were cancer and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The premature mortality rate was higher in rural areas, in northern region and in men, and decreased with age (P<0.05). Premature death was more likely to occur in smokers, and a dose-response relationship was observed. Compared with non-drinkers, the risk for premature death was higher in ex-drinkers (HR: 1.25 [95%CI:1.16-1.36]) and heavy drinkers (average alcohol consumption ≥60 g/d) (HR: 1.20 [95%CI:1.08-1.34]). The risk for premature death decreased with the increase of physical activity. Low body weight and central obesity were independently associated with increased risk for premature death (HR: 1.67 [95%CI:1.55-1.81] and 1.13 [95%CI:1.05-1.21], respectively). Conclusions: The main causes of premature death in adults aged 56-69 years in China during 10-year follow-up were cancer and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The premature mortality rate varied with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. The risk for premature death was influenced by multi factors, such as lifestyle and physical conditions.

Original publication




Journal article


Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi

Publication Date





1010 - 1018


Adult, Cause of Death, China, Female, Humans, Male, Mortality, Premature, Neoplasms, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors