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BACKGROUND: Hospital-based studies have reported variable associations between outcome after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and peri-hematomal edema volume. AIMS: In a community-based study, we aimed to investigate the existence, strength, direction, and independence of associations between intracerebral hemorrhage and peri-hematomal edema volumes on diagnostic brain CT and one-year functional outcome and long-term survival. METHODS: We identified all adults, resident in Lothian, diagnosed with first-ever, symptomatic spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage between June 2010 and May 2013 in a community-based, prospective inception cohort study. We defined regions of interest manually and used a semi-automated approach to measure intracerebral hemorrhage volume, peri-hematomal edema volume, and the sum of these measurements (total lesion volume) on first diagnostic brain CT performed at ≤3 days after symptom onset. The primary outcome was death or dependence (scores 3-6 on the modified Rankin Scale) at one-year after intracerebral hemorrhage. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-two (85%) of 342 patients (median age 77.5 y, IQR 68-83, 186 (54%) female, median time from onset to CT 6.5 h (IQR 2.9-21.7)) were dead or dependent one year after intracerebral hemorrhage. Peri-hematomal edema and intracerebral hemorrhage volumes were colinear (R2 = 0.77). In models using both intracerebral hemorrhage and peri-hematomal edema, 10 mL increments in intracerebral hemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.72 (95% CI 1.08-2.87); p = 0.029) but not peri-hematomal edema volume (aOR 0.92 (0.63-1.45); p = 0.69) were independently associated with one-year death or dependence. 10 mL increments in total lesion volume were independently associated with one-year death or dependence (aOR 1.24 (1.11-1.42); p = 0.0004). CONCLUSION: Total volume of intracerebral hemorrhage and peri-hematomal edema, and intracerebral hemorrhage volume alone on diagnostic brain CT, undertaken at three days or sooner, are independently associated with death or dependence one-year after intracerebral hemorrhage, but peri-hematomal edema volume is not. DATA ACCESS STATEMENT: Anonymized summary data may be requested from the corresponding author.

Original publication




Journal article


Int J Stroke

Publication Date



Cohort study, intracerebral hemorrhage, outcome, peri-hematomal edema, radiology, survival