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Given the global secular declining trends of the age at puberty and its relevant mechanisms, as illustrated in the first part of this series, the present part will discuss the public health implications of early puberty and potential clinical and public health measures. Although the major effect of earlier maturation impacts adolescents' mental health and likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, there are also effects in adulthood on cardiometabolic health, especially type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk of certain cancers, especially hormone-related cancers such as breast cancer. The paper ends with recommendations for clinical management, especially for girls who should receive further evaluation, as well as recommendations for the patient and her family and public health considerations.

Original publication




Journal article


J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol

Publication Date