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Motivational enhancement in sport - a form of 'neuro-doping' - can help athletes attain greater achievements in sport. A key question is whether or not that athlete deserves that achievement. We distinguish three concepts - praiseworthiness (whether the athlete deserves praise), prizeworthiness (whether the athlete deserves the prize), and admiration (pure admiration at the performance) - which are closely related. However, in sport, they can come apart. The most praiseworthy athlete may not be the most prizeworthy, and so on. Using a model of praiseworthiness as costly commitment to a valuable end, and situating prizeworthiness within the boundaries of the sport, we argue that motivational enhancement in some cases can be compatible with desert.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





205 - 215


Doping, Motivational enhancement, Neurodoping, Praiseworthiness, Sport