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BACKGROUND: The interaction of socio-demographic and ecological factors with Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infection risk by age and the household clustering of infections between individuals are poorly understood. METHODS: This study examined 1,832 individuals aged 5-90 years across 916 households in Mayuge District, Uganda. S. mansoni infection status and intensity were measured using Kato-Katz microscopy. Socio-demographic and ecological factors were examined as predictors of infection status and intensity using logistic and negative binomial regression models, respectively, with standard errors clustered by household. A subgroup analysis of children was conducted to examine the correlation of infection status between children and their caretakers. FINDINGS: Infection varied within age groups based on the distance to Lake Victoria. Children aged 9-17 years and young adults aged 18-29 years who lived ≤0.50km from Lake Victoria were more likely to be infected compared to individuals of the same age who lived further away from the lake. Infections clustered within households. Children whose caretakers were heavily infected were 2.67 times more likely to be infected. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate the focality of schistosome transmission and its dependence on socio-demographic, ecological and household factors. Future research should investigate the sampling of households within communities as a means of progressing towards precision mapping of S. mansoni infections.

Original publication




Journal article


PLoS One

Publication Date





Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Animals, Child, Child, Preschool, Cross-Sectional Studies, Family Characteristics, Feces, Female, Humans, Lakes, Logistic Models, Male, Middle Aged, Risk Factors, Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosomiasis mansoni, Schools, Uganda, Young Adult