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BACKGROUND: Studies on prevalence and factors associated with postpartum posttraumatic stress (PTS) typically do not distinguish between PTS related to childbirth (PTS-C) and PTS related to other stressors (PTS-O). This study aimed to describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and factors associated with PTS-C and PTS-O in postpartum women. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional population-based survey of 16,000 postpartum women, selected at random from birth registrations in England to receive a postal questionnaire, including the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen. RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned by 4,509 women. The median age was 32 years (IQR=29-36), 64% were married, 77% were UK-born, and 76% were White-British. Prevalence of PTS-C was 2.5% (95%CI:2.0-3.0) and prevalence of PTS-O was 6.8% (95%CI:6.0-7.8). Women with PTS-C were significantly more likely to report re-experiencing symptoms (Chi-Square=7.69,p<0.01). Factors associated with PTS-C were: higher level of deprivation, not having a health professional to talk to about sensitive issues during pregnancy, and the baby being admitted for neonatal intensive care. Factors associated with PTS-O were: age ≤24 years, depression during pregnancy, and having a pregnancy affected by long-term health problems. Factors associated with both were: living without a partner, anxiety during pregnancy, pregnancy-specific health problems, and lower birth satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: PTS during the postpartum period is relatively common and, for many women, unrelated to childbirth. Increased awareness among health professionals of prevalence, clinical characteristics and factors associated with postpartum PTS-C and PTS-O will aid the development of appropriate management protocols to identify and support women during the perinatal period. Posttraumatic stress, posttraumatic stress disorder, postpartum PTSD/PTS, birth-related PTSD/PTS, birth trauma, perinatal mental health.

Original publication




Journal article


J Affect Disord

Publication Date





749 - 756