Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND:To overcome the three delays in triage, transport and treatment that underlie adverse pregnancy outcomes, we aimed to reduce all-cause adverse outcomes with community-level interventions targeting women with pregnancy hypertension in three low-income countries. METHODS:In this individual participant-level meta-analysis, we de-identified and pooled data from the Community-Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) cluster randomised controlled trials in Mozambique, Pakistan, and India, which were run in 2014-17. Consenting pregnant women, aged 12-49 years, were recruited in their homes. Clusters, defined by local administrative units, were randomly assigned (1:1) to intervention or control groups. The control groups continued local standard of care. The intervention comprised community engagement and existing community health worker-led mobile health-supported early detection, initial treatment, and hospital referral of women with hypertension. For this meta-analysis, as for the original studies, the primary outcome was a composite of maternal or perinatal outcome (either maternal, fetal, or neonatal death, or severe morbidity for the mother or baby), assessed by unmasked trial surveillance personnel. For this analysis, we included all consenting participants who were followed up with completed pregnancies at trial end. We analysed the outcome data with multilevel modelling and present data with the summary statistic of adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs (fixed effects for maternal age, parity, maternal education, and random effects for country and cluster). This meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42018102564. FINDINGS:Overall, 44 clusters (69 330 pregnant women) were randomly assigned to intervention (22 clusters [36 008 pregnancies]) or control (22 clusters [33 322 pregnancies]) groups. 32 290 (89·7%) pregnancies in the intervention group and 29 698 (89·1%) in the control group were followed up successfully. Median maternal age of included women was 26 years (IQR 22-30). In the intervention clusters, 6990 group and 16 691 home-based community engagement sessions and 138 347 community health worker-led visits to 20 819 (57·8%) of 36 008 women (of whom 11 095 [53·3%] had a visit every 4 weeks) occurred. Blood pressure and dipstick proteinuria were assessed per protocol. Few women were eligible for methyldopa for severe hypertension (181 [1%] of 20 819) or intramuscular magnesium sulfate for pre-eclampsia (198 [1%]), of whom most accepted treatment (162 [89·5%] of 181 for severe hypertension and 133 [67·2%] of 198 for pre-eclampsia). 1255 (6%) were referred to a comprehensive emergency obstetric care facility, of whom 864 (82%) accepted the referral. The primary outcome was similar in the intervention (7871 [24%] of 32 290 pregnancies) and control clusters (6516 [22%] of 29 698; adjusted OR 1·17, 95% CI 0·90-1·51; p=0·24). No intervention-related serious adverse events occurred, and few adverse effects occurred after in-community treatment with methyldopa (one [2%] of 51; India only) and none occurred after in-community treatment with magnesium sulfate or during transport to facility. INTERPRETATION:The CLIP intervention did not reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes. Future community-level interventions should expand the community health worker workforce, assess general (rather than condition-specific) messaging, and include health system strengthening. FUNDING:University of British Columbia, a grantee of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Original publication




Journal article


Lancet (London, England)

Publication Date





553 - 563


Department of Women and Children's Health, School of Life Course Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Electronic address:


CLIP Trials Working Group