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PURPOSE: The future of non-operative management of DCIS relies on distinguishing lesions requiring treatment from those needing only active surveillance. More accurate preoperative staging and grading of DCIS would be helpful. We identified determinants of upstaging preoperative breast biopsies showing ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive breast cancer (IBC), or of upgrading them to higher-grade DCIS, following examination of the surgically excised specimen. METHODS: We studied all women with DCIS at preoperative biopsy in a large specialist cancer centre during 2000-2014. Information from clinical records, mammography, and pathology specimens from both preoperative biopsy and excised specimen were abstracted. Women suspected of having IBC during biopsy were excluded. RESULTS: Among 606 preoperative biopsies showing DCIS, 15.0% (95% confidence interval 12.3-18.1) were upstaged to IBC and a further 14.6% (11.3-18.4) upgraded to higher-grade DCIS. The risk of upstaging increased with presence of a palpable lump (21.1% vs 13.0%, pdifference = 0.04), while the risk of upgrading increased with presence of necrosis on biopsy (33.0% vs 9.5%, pdifference 

Original publication




Journal article


Breast Cancer Res Treat

Publication Date





409 - 418


Biopsy, Breast cancer, DCIS, Ductal carcinoma in situ, Upgrading, Upstaging, Adult, Aged, Biopsy, Breast Neoplasms, Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating, Cohort Studies, Combined Modality Therapy, Disease Management, Female, Humans, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Grading, Netherlands, Preoperative Care, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Registries, Young Adult